Numerous studies have examined the association between maternal caffeine consumption and infant and childhood health outcomes and the results have been inconsistent. The study of maternal caffeine intake and infant and childhood health outcomes is prone to methodologic challenges. In this review, we examine the existing evidence juxtaposed with the epidemiologic design challenges that color the interpretation of the study results presented. In light of methodologic/interpretation challenges, it seems reasonable to infer that exposure to low levels of caffeine is probably not associated with substantial infant and childhood adversities. However, more research is needed using well designed studies that address methodologic challenges.