Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effects in prostate cancer cells of green and roasted coffee extracts obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)
Coffee consumption has been investigated as a protective factor against prostate cancer. Coffee may be related to prostate cancer risk reduction due to its phytochemical compounds, such as caffeine, chlorogenic acids, and trigonelline. The roasting process affects the content of the phytochemicals and undesired compounds can be formed. Microwave-assisted extraction is an alternative to conventional extraction techniques since it preserves more bioactive compounds. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical composition and the putative preventive effects in prostate cancer development of coffee beans submitted to four different coffeeroasting degrees extracted using microwave-assisted extraction. Coffea arabica green beans (1) were roasted into light (2), medium (3) and dark (4) and these four coffee samples were submitted to microwave-assisted extraction. The antioxidant capacity of these samples was evaluated by five different methods. Caffeine, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were measured through HPLC. Samples were tested against PC-3 and DU-145 metastatic prostate cancer cell lines regarding their effects on cell viability, cell cycle progression and apoptotic cell death. We found that green and light roasted coffee extracts had the highest antioxidant activity. Caffeine content was not affected by roasting, chlorogenic acid was degraded due to the temperature, and caffeic acid increased in light roasted and decreased in medium and dark roasted. Green and light roasted coffee extracts promoted higher inhibition of cell viability, caused greater cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M and induced apoptosis more compared to medium and dark roasted coffee extracts and the control samples. Coffee extracts were more effective against DU-145 than in PC-3 cells. Our data provide initial evidence that among the four tested samples, the consumption of green and light coffee extracts contributes to inhibit prostate cancer tumor progression features, potentially preventing aspects related to advanced prostate cancer subtypes.
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