Association of maternal dietary components during pregnancy and/or lactation with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Considering the increasing trend in the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), the identification of its environmental determinants, especially those related to the prenatal and lactation period, might ultimately result in primary prevention of the disease. We aimed to review the evidence of the association between mothers’ dietary components during pregnancy and/or lactation with T1DM.
An electronic and comprehensive literature search was performed until August 2019 in the international databases, including Web of Science (ISI), PubMed, and Scopus, using the following keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmunity, mother, maternal, diet and lactation in different combinations. Papers related to the objectives of the study were selected.
Based on our review, the maternal consumption of meat, especially processed meat, was associated with increased risk of T1DM, whereas the maternal use of vegetables, potato, low-fat margarine, and berries showed protective effects against the development of T1DM in offspring. There was no significant association between the use of multivitamins and mineral supplements with T1DM, according to the available data. The results of the reviewed studies regarding the association between the maternal use of vitamin D, fatty acids, and coffee during pregnancy with T1DM were not consistent and conclusive.
Findings of this review indicate that the maternal consumption of some foods is associated with increased or decreased risk of T1DM. However, for some foods or dietary components, including coffee, vitamin D, and fatty acids, the results are not conclusive. We conclude that although maternal diet could influence the development of insulin autoantibodies (IA) and T1DM in offspring, there is no sufficient evidence for most nutrients, and available data are controversial, which should be dealt with in future cohort or interventional studies.
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