Despite the rising consumption of coffee worldwide, few prospective cohort studies assessed the association of coffee intake with mortality including total and major causes of death.
We aimed to investigate the association between habitual coffee drinking and mortality from all causes, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, injuries, and other causes of death in a large-scale, population-based cohort study in Japan.
We studied 90,914 Japanese persons aged between 40 and 69 y without a history of cancer, cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease at the time of the baseline study. Subjects were followed up for an average of 18.7 y, during which 12,874 total deaths were reported. The association between coffee intake and risk of total and cause-specific mortality was assessed by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounders.
We showed an inverse association between coffee intake and total mortality in both men and women. HRs (95% CIs) for total death in subjects who consumed coffee compared with those who never drank coffee were 0.91 (0.86-0.95) for <1 cup/d, 0.85 (0.81-0.90) for 1-2 cups/d, 0.76 (0.70-0.83) for 3-4 cups/d, and 0.85 (0.75-0.98) for >5 cups/d (P-trend < 0.001). Coffee was inversely associated with mortality from heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and respiratory disease.
With this prospective study, we suggest that the habitual intake of coffee is associated with lower risk of total mortality and 3 leading causes of death in Japan.