Previous observational studies have suggested that coffee intake may be associated with a reduction in cancer risk. Mendelian randomization (MR) studies can help clarify whether the observed associations are likely to be causal. Here we evaluated whether coffee intake is associated with: (i) overall risk of being diagnosed with/dying from any cancer; and (ii) risk of individual cancers.
We identified 46 155 cases (of which 6998 were fatal) and 270 342 controls of White British ancestry from the UK Biobank cohort (UKB), based on ICD10 diagnoses. Individuals with benign tumours were excluded. Coffee intake was self-reported and recorded based on cup/day consumption. We conducted both observational and summary data MR analyses.
There was no observational association between coffee intake and overall cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) per one cup/day increase = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98, 1.00] or cancer death (OR = 1.01, 0.99, 1.03); the estimated OR from MR is 1.01 (0.94, 1.08) for overall cancer risk and 1.11 (0.95, 1.31) for cancer death. The relationship between coffee intake and individual cancer risks were consistent with a null effect, with most cancers showing little or no associations with coffee. Meta-analysis of our MR findings with publicly available summary data on various cancers do not support a strong causal relationship between coffee and risk of breast, ovarian, lung or prostate cancer, upon correction for multiple testing.
Taken together, coffee intake is not associated with overall risk of being diagnosed with or dying from cancer in UKB. For individual cancers, our findings were not statistically inconsistent with earlier observational studies, although for these we were unable to rule out a small effect on specific types of cancer.