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Coffee & Health

Association Between Caffeine Consumption During Pregnancy and Postpartum Depression: A Population-based Study

S Iranpour et al, 2018.
Journal of Caffeine Research, Volume 7(1).
February 7, 2018



This study aimed to examine the association between caffeine intake and postpartum depression in a group of Iranian women.


This population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a representative sample of 360 women attending healthcare centers in Ardabil, Iran. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 106- item dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Caffeine intake was calculated through considering caffeine from all foods and beverages. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to examine postpartum depression. Women with a score of 13 or more were considered as depressed.


Point prevalence of postpartum depression was 34.8 per 100 subjects. After controlling for potential confounders, we observed a significant association between caffeine intake and postpartum depression, controlling for some possible confounding variables (odds ratios [ORs] and corresponding 95%confidence interval [CI] for quartiles 1, 3, and 4 of caffeine intake were 1.8 [.9–3.6], 1.2 [.63–2.4], and 2.1 [1.1–4.1]), respectively. Furthermore, tea consumption was not related to the odds of postpartum depression (ORs and corresponding 95% CI for quartiles 1, 3, and 4 of tea intake were 1.1 [.59–2.2], 1.1 [.6–2.1], and 1.2 [.63–2.3]), respectively. The second quartile was considered as the reference group.


No significant association was observed between caffeine or tea intake and odds of postpartum depression except for last quartile of caffeine in an adjusted model. Further investigations are needed to determine whether usual caffeine consumption can contribute to the risk of postpartum depression.

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