A Dose-Response Meta-analysis of Coffee Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Japanese Population: Application of a Cubic-Spline Model
A recent meta-analysis compared the relative risks of colorectal cancer between the highest and lowest levels of coffee consumption in the Japanese population. However, this analysis did not define the risks with respect to specific exposure values when considering levels of coffee consumption per day in the study population.
We conducted a two-stage random-effects dose-response meta-analysis of the association between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer among the Japanese. This was performed by modeling coffee consumption using restricted cubic splines to be able to examine a potential nonlinear relation.
We identified a total of 26 studies from seven articles, which were distributed separately according to sex and colon/rectum cancers. Data from 14 cohort studies showed that the pooled relative risks for colorectal cancers were less than 1.0 in cases with coffee consumption of 1-3 cups/day and 1.0 in cases with consumption of 4 cups/day or more, although these results were not statistically significant. Data from 12 case-control studies showed that the pooled odds ratios for cancer risk were significantly less than 1.0 in cases with coffee consumption of 1-6 cups/day.
Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that moderate coffee consumption may not be associated or may be weakly inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in the Japanese population.
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