Coffee & Health
Cardiovascular health

Latest research supports association of moderate coffee consumption with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease

October 3, 2022

A new report by the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee assesses the latest research into the potential role of coffee consumption in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease.

·      Moderate consumption of coffee per day is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and mortality1-5.

·      A significant protective effect of coffee consumption on CVD1-5, hypertension6-8 and atrial fibrillation risk9-12, from 3 cups per day.

·      Coffee has been identified as providing ‘favourable effects’ by both the European Society of Hypertension(ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology’s (ESC)13,14.

3 October 2022 - A new report conducted by the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC), and reviewed by Professor Kjeld Hermansen, Department of Clinical Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, assesses the latest research into the potential role of coffee consumption in reducing the risk of CVD.

CVD is the leading cause of death in Europe,with more than 11 million new cases being diagnosed per year15. Poor diet, lack of physical activity, smoking and raised blood cholesterol levels are all key risk factors for CVD. Other risk factors like obesity and type 2 diabetes have also increased considerably in recent years15. This report investigates the growing body of literature exploring the effect of coffee consumption on CVD, and how an everyday pleasure can potentially play a role in reducing risk15.

Findings reveal some significant health benefits and a potential protective effect of coffee on CVD risk and CVD mortality risk, with the greatest benefits observed with 3 cups per day1,2.  

Key research findings include:

·      The largest relative risk reduction for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality with 3- cups per day vs.none. Notably, a decreased risk of stroke incidences was also observed5.

·      A significant protective effect of coffee consumption on hypertension6-8 and atrial fibrillation risk9-12,starting from 3 cups per day.

·      A significant reduction of incidences in cerebrovascular events, heart failure and arrythmias in men16.

Key clinical updates from professional societies include:

·      Revised 2021 guidelines on CVD prevention in clinical practice from The European Society of Cardiology (ESC),including for the first time, the use of coffee, stating that ‘moderate coffee consumption (3-4 cups per day) is probably not harmful, perhaps even moderately beneficial’14.

·      Revised 2022 positioning statement from The European Society of Hypertension (ESH) on nutraceuticals and blood pressure,stating that antioxidant rich beverages (such as coffee and tea) could be considered as being potentially useful choices in supporting healthy blood pressures13.

Professor Kjeld Hermansen, concludes that “Drinking moderate amounts of coffee is not only associated with a lower risk of heart disease but also with living longer. These trends hold true for both people with and without cardiovascular disease. Coffee beans have over 100 biologically active compounds. These substances may help reduce oxidative stress, inflammation, and improve insulin sensitivity and metabolism. The exact mechanisms of action in relation to CVD is, however, still not clarified.”

To read the full report, titled “Coffee and cardiovascular disease” click here.



Notes to editors

·       Moderate coffee consumption can be defined as 3–5 cups per day, based on the European Food Safety Authority’s review of caffeine safety17.

·       ISIC press office team contact information:  

1.     Ding M, et al (2014). Long-term coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Circ. 129(6):643-59.

2.     Crippa A, et al. (2014). Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 180(8):763-75.

3.     Rodriguez Artalejo F & Lopez Garcia E. (2017). Coffee consumption and cardiovascular disease: a condensed review of epidemiological evidence and mechanisms. J Agric Fd Chem. 66(21):5257-63.

4.     O’Keefe JH, et al. (2018). Coffee for cardioprotection and longevity. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 61(1):38-42.

5.     Poole R, etal. (2017). Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes. BMJ. 22;359:j5024.

6.     D’Elia L, et al. (2019). Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. EurJ Nutr. 58(1):271-80.

7.     Xie C, etal. (2018). Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Hum Hypertens. 32(2):83-93.

8.     Surman S& Oparil S. (2021). Coffee and arterial hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 23(7):38.21.

9.     Larsson SC, et al, (2015). Coffee consumption is not associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation: results from two prospective cohorts and a meta-analysis. BMC Medicine. 13(1):207.

10.  Casiglia E,et al. (2018). Caffeine intake reduces incident atrial fibrillation at a population level. Eur J Prev Cardiol.25(10):1055-62.

11.  Abdelfattah R, et al. (2018). Does caffeine consumption increase the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation? Cardiology. 140(2):106-14.

12.  Krittanawong C, et al. (2021). Is caffeine or coffee consumption a risk for new-onset atrial fibrillation? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 28(12):e13-5.

13.  Borghi C, et al. (2020). Nutraceuticals and blood pressure control: a European Society of Hypertension position document. JHypertens. 38(5):799-812.

14.  European Society of Cardiology (ESC). 2021 ESC guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. EurHeart Jour. 42:3227-337.

15.  Timmis A, et al. (2020). European Society of Cardiology (ESC). (2019). Cardiovascular.Disease Statistics. Euro Heart J.41:12;85.

16.  TikhonoffV, et al. (2022). Prognostic cut-off values of caffeine and cardiovascular events in a cohort of unselected men and women from general population. Abstract presented at ESC congress.

17.  European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). (2015). Scientific opinion on the safety of caffeine. EFSA Journal. 13(5):4102.

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