However, the authors suggested further investigation of the possibility of a modest reduced risk of all-cause and CVD mortality2,3.
The further research available today counters early views that coffee may be a less desirable component of the diet4-16. More recent meta-analyses have suggested that coffee may be associated with a reduced total mortality risk4-16. A large 2017 study with over 500,000 participants across 10 European countries found a significant association between higher coffee consumption (calculated as more than 3 cups per day with 1 cup equal to 237ml) and lower risk of all-cause mortality1.
A number of reviews and meta-analyses have been published that consider the associations between coffee consumption and overall mortality, as well as mortality from specific conditions such as cancers and heart disease.