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Coffee & Health
GI function

Disorders of the stomach

Several studies have looked at the causal link between stomach disorders and coffee, including dyspepsia, gastro oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), peptic ulcers, gastritis and stomach cancer

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GI function
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Affects of coffee consumption

Dyspepsia

Several studies have found no relation between coffee consumption and dyspepsia2-4.

  • One 2001 study which considered the effect of alcohol, coffee and smoking on GI symptoms revealed 37% of 500 adults considered coffee to be a cause of dyspepsia. However, further investigations show no association between drinking coffee and this condition. Both smoking and having stopped smoking are strongly associated with dyspepsia2
  • A 1998 UK cross sectional study of 8,407 individuals also suggested that there is no association between coffee consumption and dyspepsia, but showed a significant relationship between the presence of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and dyspepsia4

Gastro oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)

Coffee has been suggested as a possible cause in some cases, however there is no evidence that coffee consumption affects the symptoms of GORD6-14. Those who suffer from symptoms often self-regulate their diet according to their own sensitivities and some patients may choose to limit their coffee consumption.Although some research suggests coffee drinking is perceived as a risk factor for GORD, several studies have found no association8-10.

  • A 2001 study involving monitoring reflux, using a catheter inserted inside the oesophagus of sufferers show that coffee only has an impact when consumed on an empty stomach, and the effect on reflux is smaller than that observed following consumption of a full meal. Coffee was not found to affect other factors associated with reflux such as the functioning of the oesophageal sphincter muscle. The researchers concluded that coffee itself does not affect GORD in healthy volunteers2
  • A large 2004 patient control study in Norway involving 3,153 sufferers and 40,210 controls examined associations between reflux and lifestyle factors. Both smoking and high salt consumption appear to have the greatest impact. The researchers suggest that coffee consumption, together with consumption of high fibre bread and regular physical movement lowered the risk of GORD11
  • A 2007 study of lifestyle factors and reflux in twins suggests that high BMI, smoking and lack of physical activity at work are risk factors for frequent GORD symptoms12. No nutritional factors, including coffee consumption, have been found to have a link and in fact, in men the consumption of more than seven cups of coffee per day is associated with a lower risk of reflux12
  • A 2006 review of 16 studies assessing the role of lifestyle factors in GORD shows that modifying eating habits, including coffee consumption, does not affect symptoms of acid reflux13. A further 2013 meta analysis also showed no association between coffee intake and GORD14
  • A 1997 study suggests that consuming decaffeinated coffee at breakfast time reduces acid reflux15, but this has not been confirmed in other studies and conclusions cannot be drawn

Peptic ulcers

Studies investigating the risk factors for the development of stomach ulcers conclude that coffee is no longer considered a risk factor16,17.

  • A 2003 Danish cohort study of 2,416 adults assessed the risk factors for stomach ulcers and concluded that pylori, smoking and use of tranquilisers are risk factors. Coffee consumption was found not to be a risk factor16
  • A 2013 cross-sectional study of 8,013 healthy subjects in Japanalso shows no association between coffee consumption and peptic ulcers17

Gastritis

There is no evidence that coffee influences the development of gastritis16,17. Patients who suffer with painful gastritis often choose to avoid certain foods or beverages if they experience discomfort, and self-management is common16,17.

Stomach cancer

Research to date shows that there is no evidence to suggest a link between coffee consumption and the risk of developing stomach cancer. In 2016 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed all available scientific evidence and found no clear association between coffee intake and cancer at any body site, including the stomach32.

  • A 2015 systematic review and a meta-analysis of 23 studies found no association between coffee consumption and the development of stomach cancer35
  • Findings from the 2011 EPIC Cohort study suggest that consumption of total coffee intake, as well as intakes of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee are not associated with overall gastric cancer risk. However, total coffee and caffeinated coffee consumption may be associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer36

Further detailed information on coffee and cancer is available here.

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