Coffee is one of the most researched components of the diet and research suggests that a moderate intake of coffee may reduce incidences of CVD and CVD mortality risk1-8.
- A 2020 review concluded that coffee consumption was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality and not associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. The review suggested that a significant non-linear dose response association was found for coffee consumption and all-cause mortality9
- A 2022 UK Biobank study concluded that coffee consumption of up to 3 cups per day was associated with favourable CVD outcomes, most notably a decreased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality and stroke incidence10
- A further 2022 study using UK Biobank data supported these associations,concluding that coffee intake of 2-3 cups per day showed the lowest risk for CVD and all-cause mortality, whilst CVD mortality risk was lowest at 1 cup per day11
In 2021, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)included coffee for the first time in its updated guidelines on CVD preventionin clinical practice, stating that ‘moderate coffee consumption (3-4 cups perday) is probably not harmful, perhaps even moderately beneficial’12.
The content in this topic overview was last edited in October 2022. Papers in the latest research section and further resources are added regularly.