Stocks P (1970). Cancer mortality in relation to national consumption of cigarettes, solid fuel, tea, and coffee. Br J Cancer; 24: 215–225.

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Comparison between the age-adjusted death rates in 1964-65 from cancers of different sites and the annual consumption of cigarettes, solid fuel, tea and coffee as measured by trade statistics in 20 countries reveals the existence of significant correlations.

Cigarette consumption per adult in the population is positively related with lung and bladder cancer in males and insignificantly with lung in females. Negative relations are indicated with the liver and biliary passages, prostate and uterus.

Solid fuel is positively related with the intestine, lung and bladder in both sexes, with leukaemia in males and with breast in females. Nagative associations are indicated with the stomach.

Tea is positively related with intestine except rectum in both sexes and with larynx, lung and breast in females. Negative associations are indicated with the stomach in both sexes and with uterus and leukaemia in females.

Coffee is positively related with the pancreas, prostate and leukaemia in males and with ovary and leukaemia in females.

Specially noteworthy were the contrasts between the intestine and stomach in their associations with solid fuel, cigarettes and tea for which a possible explanation has been suggested.

 

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