Snel J, et al (2011). Effects of caffeine on sleep and cognition. Prog Brain Res;190:105-17.

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Caffeine can be used effectively to manipulate our mental state. It is beneficial in restoring low levels of wakefulness and in counteracting degraded cognitive task performance due to sleep deprivation. However, caffeine may produce detrimental effects on subsequent sleep, resulting in daytime sleepiness. This justifies a careful consideration of risks related to sleep deprivation in combination with caffeine consumption, especially in adolescents. The efficacy of caffeine to restore detrimental effects of sleep deprivation seems to be partly due to caffeine expectancy and to placebo effects. The claim that stimulant effects of caffeine are related to withdrawal or withdrawal reversal seems to be untenable.

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