J Feng et al, 2021. Association between Caffeine Intake and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: An Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2014 Database, Nursing Reports, Volume 11 (4).

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ABSTRACT

Sixty-four percent of adults in America drink coffee daily, and caffeine is the main reason people tend to drink coffee habitually. Few studies have examined the association between caffeine and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the association between caffeine and all-cause and cause-specific mortality using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2014 database. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine 23,878 individuals 20 years and older. Daily caffeine intake was measured once at baseline. A total of 2206 deaths occurred, including 394 cardiovascular (CVD) deaths and 525 cancer deaths. Compared to those with a caffeine intake of <100 mg/day, the hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD mortality were significantly lower in the participants with a caffeine intake of 100-200 mg/day (HR, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.88), and those with a caffeine intake of >200 mg/day (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50-0.88) after adjusting for potential confounders. The HRs for all-cause mortality were significantly lower in the participants with a caffeine intake of 100-200 mg/day (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91), and those with a caffeine intake of >200 mg/day (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.60-0.78). Subgroup analyses showed that caffeine may have different effects on all-cause mortality among different age and body mass index (BMI) groups. In conclusion, higher caffeine intake was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality.

 

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