W Tanski et al, 2021. Osteoporosis – risk factors, pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical treatment, Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, Volume 25 (9).

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ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease of the skeletal system which currently affects over 200 million patients worldwide. The WHO criteria define osteoporosis as low bone mineral density, with a T-score ≤ -2.5 found in the spine, the neck of the femur, or during a full hip examination. Osteoporosis considerably reduces a patient’s quality of life. QoL should be carefully evaluated before fractures occur to enable the development of an appropriate treatment plan. The progression of osteoporosis may be significantly inhibited by following a proper diet, leading a healthy lifestyle, taking dietary supplements, and receiving appropriate treatment. Education and the prevention of the disease play a major role. Potentially modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis are vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol consumption, low calcium intake, low or excessive phosphorus intake, protein deficiency or a high-protein diet, excessive consumption of coffee, a sedentary lifestyle or lack of mobility, and insufficient exposure to the sun. Pharmaceutical treatment for osteoporosis involves bisphosphonates, calcium and vitamin D3, denosumab, teriparatide, raloxifene, and strontium ranelate. Data indicates that 30%-50% of patients do not take their medication correctly. Other methods of treatment include exercise, kinesitherapy, treatment at a health resort, physical therapy, and diet.

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