V Bodar et al, 2020. Coffee Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure in the Physicians’ Heart Study. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, published online.

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ABSTRACT

Background: 
Previous studies have reported the benefits of coffee consumption on diabetes, stroke, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, no large-scale long-term prospective study has evaluated the relation between coffee consumption and heart failure (HF) among US population.

Objective:
To test the hypothesis that coffee consumption is associated with risk of HF among male physicians.

Methods:
We prospectively studied 20,433 middle-aged and older men from the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS). Coffee consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The incidence of HF was assessed based on self-reports on annual questionnaires which were validated in a subsample using by review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazard models to compute the hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

Results:
The mean (SD) age of men was 66.4 (9.2) years. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 901 new cases of HF were reported. In a multivariable Cox model adjusting for age, alcohol, smoking, and exercise, the HR (95% CI) of HF were 1.00 (reference), 1.04 (0.84-1.28), 0.90 (0.73-1.11), and 1.09 (0.91-1.30) for coffee consumption of almost never, <1 cup/day, 1 cup/day, and ≥2 cups/day, respectively (P for linear trend – 0.47). In a secondary analysis, dietary caffeine intake was not associated with HF risk: multivariable adjusted HR (95% CI) were 1.00 (reference), 1.07 (0.87-1.31), 0.95 (0.77-1.18), 1.06 (0.86-1.31), and 1.15 (0.92-1.44) across consecutive quintiles of dietary caffeine (P for linear trend – 0.34).

Conclusions:
We found no association between either coffee consumption or dietary caffeine intake with HF risk among US male physicians.

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