R van Dam et al, 2020. Coffee, Caffeine and Health. The New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 383 (4).

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CONCLUSIONS

A large body of evidence suggests that consumption of caffeinated coffee, the main source of caffeine intake in adults in the United States, does not increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. In fact, consumption of 3 to 5 standard cups of coffee daily has been consistently associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases. However, high caffeine intake can have various adverse effects, and limits of 400 mg of caffeine per day for adults who are not pregnant or lactating and 200 mg per day for pregnant and lactating women have been recommended. A large majority of adults in the United States adhere to these guidelines, but because of person-to-person variation in metabolism and sensitivity to caffeine, a lower or somewhat higher amount may be appropriate in individual cases. Current evidence does not warrant recommending caffeine or coffee intake for disease prevention but suggests that for adults who are not pregnant or lactating and do not have specific health conditions, moderate consumption of coffee or tea can be part of a healthy lifestyle.

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