F Gao et al, 2018. Coffee consumption is positively related to insulin secretion in the Shanghai high-risk diabetic screens (SHiDS) study, Nutrition and Metabolism (London), published online.

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ABSTRACT

Background:
It has been proved that coffee consumption was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. But the benefit effect of coffee on hyperglycemia in Chinese population was largely unknown. Besides, the relationship of coffee intake and diabetic pathogenesis was still unclear.

Methods:
The study population was selected from the Shanghai High-Risk Diabetic Screen (SHiDS) project. A total of 1328 individuals over 18 years of age who have the information of coffee intake were enrolled in the study from 2012 to 2016. Each participant finished a five-point 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and finished a standard questionnaire. Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR and insulin secretion was evaluated by HOMA-β, Stumvoll first phase and second phase indexes.

Results:
Coffee consumption group had lower plasma glucose levels at 2-h and 3-h and higher insulin levels at fasting, 30-min and 1-h during OGTT after adjustment with age, fat%, BMI, waist, tea intake, smoking habit, alcohol intake, diabetes family history and educational status (P for PG2h = 0.002; P for PG3h = 0.010; P for FIN = 0.010; P for IN30min = 0.001; P for IN1h = 0.002). Both HOMA-β and Stumvoll formula indexes were positively related to coffee consumption (P for HOMA-β = 0.033; P for Stumvoll first phase = 0.003; P for Stumvoll second phase = 0.001). Logistic regression analysis further confirmed that coffee intake was independently associated with higher levels of HOMA-β and Stumvoll insulin secretion indexes [OR (95% CI) for HOMA-β = 2.270 (1.456–3.538); OR (95% CI) for Stumvoll first phase = 2.071 (1.352–3.173); OR (95% CI) for Stumvoll second phase = 1.914 (1.260–2.906)].

Conclusions:
Coffee intake is independently and positively related to pancreatic beta cell function in a large high-risk diabetic Chinese population.

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