E Blaszczyk-Bebenek et al, 2018. Evaluation of Caffeine Consumption Among Pregnant Women from Southern Poland, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 15 (11).

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Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant worldwide, including by pregnant women. Products containing caffeine should be limited in accordance with the recommendations for pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate consumption of caffeinated products and daily caffeine intake from food by pregnant women. The study was conducted on a group of healthy pregnant women: attendees of antenatal classes (n = 70) and patients of an outpatient gynecological clinic (n = 70) from Krakow (Southern Poland). A questionnaire about the frequency of consumption of selected foods and drinks containing caffeine was used. The average caffeine content in food products obtained from other Polish studies was used to estimate average daily caffeine intake in our study group. Mean daily caffeine intake was 49.60 ± 59.15 mg/day and the maximum was 498.0 mg/day. The main sources of caffeine were as follows: black tea (bags, leaf), instant coffee and ground coffee. No statistically significant differences in caffeine intake between the groups were found. A weak negative correlation (rs) = -0.28 (p = 0.0208) between month of pregnancy and caffeine intake was observed among attendees of antenatal classes. Mean daily caffeine intake did not exceed the maximum recommended dose in our study group.

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