I Y Kim et al, 2018. Interaction between caffeine and polymorphisms of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (GRIN2A) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) on Parkinson’s disease risk. Movement Disorders, published online.

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ABSTRACT

Background:
Caffeine intake has been inversely associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk. This relationship may be modified by polymorphisms of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (GRIN2A) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), but the results of previous studies have been inconsistent.

Method:
We examined the interaction of caffeine intake with GRIN2A-rs4998386 and CYP1A2-rs762551 polymorphisms in influencing PD risk among 829 incident cases of PD and 2,754 matched controls selected among participants in the following 3 large prospective ongoing cohorts: the Nurses’ Health Study, the Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study, and the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Matching factors included cohort, birth year, source of DNA, date of DNA collection, and race. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic models. Interactions were tested both on the multiplicative scale and on the additive scale.

Results:
Overall, caffeine intake was associated with a lower PD risk (adjusted relative risk for highest versus lowest tertile 5 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.57- 0.86; p < .001). In analyses stratified by the GRIN2Ars4998386 genotype, the multivariable-adjusted relative risk of PD comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of caffeine was 0.69 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.88; p < .01) among individuals homozygous for the C allele, and 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.32; p 5 .47; pRERI 5 .43) among carriers for the T allele. Interactions between caffeine and GRIN2A were not significant in either the multiplicative or additive scales. We also did not observe significant interactions for CYP1A2- rs762551 and incident PD risk.

Conclusion:
Our findings do not support the hypothesis of an interaction between the GRIN2A-rs4998386 or CYP1A2-rs762551 polymorphism and caffeine intake in determining PD risk.

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