M Shinoda et al, 2015. Inverse Relationship between Coffee Consumption and Cerebral Microbleeds in Men, but Not Women, Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Volume 24 (10)

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Background: Studies evaluating the association between coffee consumption and neurovascular diseases have frequently yielded contradictory results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of coffee consumption with smallvessel disease (SVD) incidence in a healthy urban population while accounting for multiple demographic and lifestyle risk factors.
Methods: This prospective study conducted from May 2013 through March 2014 included 455 participants (314 men and 141 women) aged 25 to 92 years. All subjects completed a questionnaire on coffee consumption and received a comprehensive neurologic examination, including magnetic resonance imaging, at St. Luke’s International Hospital (Tokyo, Japan).
Results: Incidence of SVD was lower in male daily coffee drinkers than male nondrinkers and occasional drinkers, whereas incidence of white matter lesions was lower in female daily coffee drinkers than female nondrinkers or occasional drinkers. In multivariate analyses including age, sex, smoking status, and BMI, as well as coffee consumption, incidence of microbleeds was significantly lower in male daily coffee drinkers compared to nondrinkers.
Conclusions: Daily coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of cerebral microbleeds in men.

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