A T Nordestgaard et al, 2015, Coffee intake and risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a Mendelian randomization study, International Journal of Epidemiology, published online ahead of print.

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ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages. We tested the hypothesis that genetically high coffee intake is associated with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and with related components thereof.

METHODS: We included 93 179 individuals from two large general population cohorts in a Mendelian randomization study. We tested first whether high coffee intake is associated with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and with related components thereof, in observational analyses; second, whether five genetic variants near the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and AHR genes are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variants are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and with related components thereof. Finally, we tested the genetic association with type 2 diabetes in a meta-analysis including up to 78 021 additional individuals from the DIAGRAM consortium.

RESULTS: Observationally, high coffee intake was associated with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Further, high coffee intake was associated with high body mass index, waist circumference, weight, height, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides and total cholesterol and with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not with glucose levels. In genetic analyses, 9-10 vs 0-3 coffee-intake alleles were associated with 29% higher coffee intake. However, genetically derived high coffee intake was not associated convincingly with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, waist circumference, weight, height, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or glucose levels. Per-allele meta-analysed odds ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1.01 (0.98-1.04) for AHR rs4410790, 0.98 (0.95-1.01) for AHR rs6968865, 1.01 (0.99-1.03) for CYP1A1/2 rs2470893, 1.01 (0.98-1.03) for CYP1A1/2 rs2472297 and 0.98 (0.95-1.01) for CYP1A1 rs2472299.

CONCLUSIONS: High coffee intake was associated observationally with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and was associated observationally with related components thereof, but with no genetic evidence to support corresponding causal relationships.

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