Coffee consumption and risk factors for CVPrint this page 19 Jul 2013
This is the final of five blog posts on the topic of coffee consumption and cardiovascular health, concentrating on the impact of coffee consumption and cardiovascular health. Coffee and Health also houses current scientific information on a wide range of other coffee-related topics.
Behavioural risk factors are responsible for about 80% of cardiovascular diseases. The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol. The effects of these risk factors may show up in individuals as raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose, raised blood lipids, and overweight and obesity.
Coffee and risk factors
Extensive research has been devoted to associations between coffee consumption and key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The majority of prospective cohort studies do not show an association with coffee consumption, with the potential exception of a small protective effect in women. Whilst further research is required, current evidence suggests the following in relation to specific risk factors:
|Risk Factor||Research Highlights|
|Blood pressure||Although the precise nature of the relationship between coffee and blood pressure is still unclear, overall the evidence suggests that regular intake of caffeinated coffee does not increase the risk of hypertension.
|Cholesterol||The diterpenes, cafestol, and, to a lesser extent, kahweol, are naturally found in coffee oil and known to raise serum cholesterol levels. Cafestol and kahweol are largely retained in the paper filter in filtered coffee and soluble coffee contains hardly any of them. Both of these types of coffee have virtually no effect on cholesterol levels. Moderate consumption of espresso also has negligible effects as levels are lower than unfiltered coffee and serving sizes are small. Scandinavian boiled coffee, Cafetière (plunger pot) Greek and Turkish coffee contain cafestol and kahweol in higher amounts. Consuming substantial amounts of these types of coffee can raise serum cholesterol levels. The effects on cholesterol levels are temporary after coffee has been consumed.
|Blood glucose||Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for CVD. The effect of coffee consumption on glucose metabolism needs to be clarified, however research on the effects of caffeine is available. Whilst a small intake of caffeine-drugs may impair glucose metabolism, a large intake of caffeine from diet has little effect on glucose metabolism. A substantial amount of research suggests that moderate coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
|Blood homocysteine||There is some evidence from intervention studies that high levels of coffee consumption (6 to 10 cups of coffee per day) increases blood homocysteine levels. However, it is still unclear whether reducing high homocysteine levels will lead to a lower risk of CVD and no causal relationship has been established between high total plasma homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease.
This information is intended for Healthcare professional audiences.
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