A V Mattioli et al, (2011). Influence of coffee and caffeine consumption on atrial fibrilation in hypertensive patients. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Disease, Volume 21.

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Background and aims: Coffee and caffeine are widely consumed in Western countries.
Little information is available on the influence of coffee and caffeine consumption on atrial
fibrillation (AF) in hypertensive patients. We sought to investigate the relationship between
coffee consumption and atrial fibrillation with regard to spontaneous conversion of arrhythmia.
Methods and results: A group of 600 patients presenting with a first known episode of AF was
investigated, and we identified 247 hypertensive patients. The prevalence of nutritional parameters
was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Coffee and caffeine intake were specifically
estimated. Left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated by electrocardiogram (ECG) and
echocardiogram. Coffee consumption was higher in normotensive patients. High coffee
consumers were more frequent in normotensive patients compared with hypertensive patients.
On the other hand, the intake of caffeine was similar in hypertensive and normotensive patients,
owing to a higher intake in hypertensive patients from sources other than coffee. Within normotensive
patients, we report that non-habitual and low coffee consumers showed the highest
probability of spontaneous conversion (OR 1.93 95%CI 0.88e3.23; pZ0.001), whereas, within
hypertensive patients, moderate but not high coffee consumers had the lowest probability of
spontaneous conversion (OR 1.13 95%CI 0.67e1.99; pZ0.05).
Conclusion: Coffee and caffeine consumption influence spontaneous conversion of atrial fibrillation.
Normotensive non-habitual coffee consumers are more likely to convert arrhythmia
within 48 h from the onset of symptoms. Hypertensive patients showed a U-shaped relationship
between coffee consumption and spontaneous conversion of AF, moderate coffee consumers
were less likely to show spontaneous conversion of arrhythmia. Patients with left ventricular
hypertrophy showed a reduced rate of spontaneous conversion of arrhythmia.
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