J Snel & M Lorist, (2011). Effects of Caffeine on Sleep and Cognition, Progress in Brain Research, Chapter 6, Volume 90.

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Abstract: Caffeine can be used effectively to manipulate our mental state. It is beneficial in restoring
low levels of wakefulness and in counteracting degraded cognitive task performance due to sleep
deprivation. However, caffeine may produce detrimental effects on subsequent sleep, resulting in
daytime sleepiness. This justifies a careful consideration of risks related to sleep deprivation in
combination with caffeine consumption, especially in adolescents. The efficacy of caffeine to restore
detrimental effects of sleep deprivation seems to be partly due to caffeine expectancy and to placebo
effects. The claim that stimulant effects of caffeine are related to withdrawal or withdrawal reversal
seems to be untenable.

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