Print this page
  1. Kolasa K.M. et al (2009). Hydration and health promotion. Nutrition Today, 44, 190-203
  2. Ganio M.S. et al (2007). Evidence-based approach to lingering hydration questions. Clinical Sports Medicine, 26, 12-16.
  3. Neuhauser-Berthold M. et al (1997). Coffee consumption and total body water homeostasis as measured by fluid balance and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 41, 29-36.
  4. Grandjean A.C. et al (2000). The effect of caffeinated, non caffeinated, caloric and non caloric beverages on hydration. Journal of American College of Nutrition, 19, 591-600.
  5. Maughan R.J. et al (2003). Caffeine ingestion and fluid balance: a review. Journal of Human Nutrition Dietetic, 16, 411-420.
  6. Armstrong L.E. et al (2005). Fluid, electrolyte, renal indices of hydration during 11 days of controlled caffeine consumption. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 15, 252-265.
  7. Silva A. M. et al (2013) Total body water and its compartments are not affected by ingesting a moderate dose of caffeine in healthy young adult males. Applied Physiology Nutrition & Metabolism, 38:626-632.
  8. Killer S. C. et al (2014) No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population. PLoS ONE, 9(1): e84154.
  9. Popkin B.M. et al (2006). A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83, 529-542.
  10. Armstrong L.E. (2002). Caffeine, body fluid-electrolyte balance, and exercise performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 12, 205-222.
  11. Ganio M.S. et al (2009). Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Volume 23; 315-324.
  12. Goldstein E.R. et al (2010). Caffeine enhances upper body strength in resistance trained athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7 :5.
  13. Amstrong L.E. et al (2007). Caffeine, fluid-electrolyte balance, temperature regulation, and exercise heat tolerance. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 35, 135-140.
  14. EFSA, (2015) Scientific Opinion on the Safety of Caffeine, EFSA Journal, 13(5):4102.
  15. Food Standards Agency, Public Health England, McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 7th edn., Cambridge, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014.
  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2011) Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and increased fat oxidation leading to a reduction in body fat mass (ID 735, 1484), increased energy expenditure leading to a reduction in body weight (ID 1487), increased alertness (ID 736, 1101, 1187, 1485, 1491, 2063, 2103) and increased attention (ID 736, 1485, 1491, 2375) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061. EFSA Journal, 9(4): 2054.

This information is intended for Healthcare professional audiences.
Please consider the environment before printing.