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EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2011) Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and increase in physical performance during short-term high-intensity exercise (ID 737, 1486, 1489), increase in endurance performance (ID 737, 1486), increase in endurance capacity (ID 1488) and reduction in the rated perceived exertion/effort during exercise (ID 1488, 1490) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal; 9(4): 2053 [24 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2053

Neuhauser-Berthold M. et al (1997) Coffee consumption and total body water homeostasis as measured by fluid balance and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Ann Nutr Metab, 41(1):29-36.

Grandjean A.C. et al (2000) The effect of caffeinated, non caffeinated, caloric and non caloric beverages on hydration. J Am Coll Nutr, 19(5):591-600.

Maughan R.J. et al (2003) Caffeine ingestion and fluid balance: a review. J Hum Nutr Diet, 16(6):411-20.

Armstrong L.E. et al (2005) Fluid, electrolyte, renal indices of hydration during 11 days of controlled caffeine consumption. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 15(3):252-65.

Silva A. M. et al (2013) Total body water and its compartments are not affected by ingesting a moderate dose of caffeine in healthy young adult males. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 38:626-632.

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