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The observed effects of coffee consumption on cardiovascular disease and its risk factors are unlikely to be explained by caffeine alone.

The scientific evidence suggests that moderate coffee consumption does not increase the risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. In fact, in women, moderate coffee consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of stroke. In addition, regular intake of caffeinated coffee does not appear to increase blood pressure. Coffee’s effect on cholesterol levels is largely dependent on the brewing method used. Although there is some evidence to suggest that high coffee intakes increase blood homocysteine, the relationship between high homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease risk is unclear.

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