Coffee consumption and type 2 diabetesPrint this page
Coffee and risk of type 2 diabetes
Epidemiological studies suggest that drinking 3-4 cups of coffee per day is associated with an approximate 25% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes, compared to consuming none or less than 2 cups per day1,2. Research also suggests a dose response relationship15-17.
A systematic review with a meta-analysis of 457,922 individuals and 21,897 newly-diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes from eight different countries showed a statistically significant negative association between coffee consumption and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes2. The dose response analysis concluded that every additional cup of coffee, up to 6-8 cups per day, was associated with a 5-10% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Drinking 3-4 cups of coffee per day was associated with an approximate 25% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes, compared to consuming none or less than 2 cups per day.
Additional epidemiological studies and reviews from different countries have also confirmed the inverse association with coffee consumption3-13. Furthermore, a 10 year follow-up study from Greece highlighted the significance of long-term habitual coffee drinking against diabetes onset14. Further dose response studies have also been reported. A 2014 study concluded that participants who increased coffee intake by more than one cup per day over a 4 year period had an 11% lower risk of type 2 diabetes, whilst those who decreased coffee consumption by one cup per day had a 17% greater risk of type 2 diabetes15. A meta-analysis of prospective studies suggested a 12% reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes for every additional two cups of coffee per day, and a 14% reduction for every 200mg increment of caffeine per day. This review also suggested that the effect was stronger for women than men16. A further 2014 systematic review and dose response analysis also concluded that the risk of diabetes was reduced by, respectively: 8, 15, 21, 25, 29 and 33% for 1-6 cups of coffee per day17.
The effect of certain genetic polymorphisms on associations between coffee intake and type 2 diabetes was considered in a 2016 review, suggesting that the evidence for a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in coffee drinkers may be limited when taking into account the genetic profile. These findings warrant further investigation23.
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