- Current science suggests that moderate coffee drinking is not associated with an increased risk of cancer at the majority of body sites.
- There is no association between coffee consumption and increased risk of oesophageal, stomach, pancreatic, kidney, prostate, breast, ovarian or skin cancers.
- Research results also suggest that coffee consumption may be associated with a reduced risk of developing cancer at a number of body sites, including the oral cavity/pharynx, liver, endometrium, brain, colon and rectum. Further studies are needed to clarify these associations.
- A possible association has been shown between coffee consumption and bladder and lung cancer risk. However, in both cases residual confounding, mainly linked to smoking and alcohol consumption, remains and further studies are needed to confirm the association.