- Current scientific evidence suggests that moderate coffee drinking is not associated with an increased risk of cancer at the majority of body sites.
- Coffee drinking is not linked to an increased risk of oesophageal, stomach, pancreatic, kidney, prostate, skin, ovarian or breast cancer.
- Research results also suggest that coffee consumption may be linked to a reduced risk of developing cancer at a number of body sites, including the oral cavity/pharynx, liver, endometrium, brain, colon and rectum. More research is needed to clarify these associations.
- A possible association has been shown between coffee consumption and bladder and lung cancer risk. However, in both cases, potential confounding factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption remain, and further studies are needed to confirm the association.